Norton Abrasives Products and Accessories
Norton Abrasives Products and Accessories
Do-It-Yourself/Contractor Markets - North America

Glossary of Terms

This glossary outlines many terms related to abrasives in regards to our products and associated applications: sanding, finishing and grinding.



 A ,   B ,   C ,   D ,   E ,   F ,   G ,   H ,   I ,   J ,   K ,   L ,   M ,   N ,   O ,   P ,   Q ,   R ,   S ,   T ,   U ,   V ,   W ,   X ,   Y ,   Z    

A

  Acrylic/Wood - a generic name for wood-plastic-composites utilizing wood with
acrylic monomers and polymerized within the wood cells by gamma irradiation,
which is then cured by heat radiation.

Adalox® - is a Norton trademark for Aluminum Oxide products.

All Purpose Sanding - a product line designed for a general purpose sanding
a variety of materials cost effectively.

Aluminum Oxide - a synthetic mineral with a brown/gray appearance used
as an abrasive grain: resistant to wear and extremely durable.

Angle Grinder - a tool designed for grinding and finishing seams/welds,
cleaning slag from flame cutting or for quick cut-off applications. Some
models turn up to 11,000 RPM

Angle Sander Grinder - a tool designed for light to medium sanding applications
on wood, metal and other surfaces. Most operate in the 4,000 to 6,500 RPM range,
but heavy-duty models that operate between 10,000 to 12,000 RPM. The grinder/
sanders equipped with a more powerful motor can also be used for cut-off work in
some applications.

Arkansas® - is a Norton trademark for a Novaculite stone, ideal for sharp edges.

  B 

Belt Sander - a class of tool consisting of two rollers, one powered and one an
idler, in which a sanding belt travels across. Ideal for sanding large flat surfaces
of wood, plastic and fiberglass, 1/2 HP models generally have a no-load speed
of 1,000 ft. per minute. 1 HP models generally have a no-load speed of 1,300 ft.
per minute. 1 1/4 HP models have a speed of 1,300 ft. per minute. Some models
have dust pick-up systems to use with shop vacs.

Bench Stand Belt - an abrasive product designed for use on stationary belt
sanders for dimensioning and shaping as well as heavy stock removal.

Bench Stand Belt / Disc Sander - a tool designed for deburring, grinding,
tool sharpening, polishing and sanding. Some combined belt/disc models
offer a tilting work surface and miter gauge groove. Belt assembly for some
models adjusts from vertical to horizontal for the shaping and sanding of both
straight edges and contours. Discs rotate up to 3,450 RPM and belt speeds
typically run between 2,000 to 3,100 ft. per minute.

Bench Stone - a traditional abrasive product in block form used to sharpen
tools, knives and many other edges.

Bench and Pedestal Grinder - a tool used to grind down metal or other materials.
Ideal for sharpening drill bits, chisels, or for offhand deburring, shaping and limited
stock removal on all types of material. Typically, grinders are 6" and 8", and Norton
supplies 3"-8", 10" and 12" wheels with additional bushings, so one specification
can meet the needs of several machines with different arbor sizes. Most models
have a rear exhaust port to keep material away from the user. Depending on the size,
grinders are powered with 1/5 HP to 1 HP motors with speeds of around 3,450 RPM.
Some models offer accessories that lock tools into place for the correct angle for
sharpening.

Bench Wheel - a bonded abrasive wheel for use on all bench and pedestal mounted
grinders for offhand deburring, sharpening, shaping and limited stock removal on
all types of material.

Billy Rolls - pinch rolls used in wide abrasive belt sanders

Block and Edge Sander - a generic term for a sander consisting of sanding belts
that operate on the straight edges of the workpiece as it travels through a system
of replaceable blocks. Used in sanding profile edges.

Bond - an adhesive or glue that anchors the abrasive grains to the backing.

Bow - the distortion of wood / lumber where there is a deviation in a perpendicular
direction to the flat surface.

Buffer - a tool (electric or pneumatic) that uses a soft-rotating surface to enhance
the surface quality of a work piece. Bulk - is a Norton term used for a large pack
quantity of a product.

Burl - a swirl or twist in the grain of wood, which usually occurs near a knot.

Burnishing - the production of a smooth and non-porous surface through the
use of a successions of very fine grade abrasives.

Butt Splice - a joint of an abrasive belt in which the two ends are not overlapped
but held together by reinforcement applied to the non-abrasive side of the belt.

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C  

Centerless Grinding - a form of outside diameter grinding that does not require
the work to be mounted on centers or driven by an independent power source.

Chatter Marks - a pattern of repetitive undesirable marks left on a sanded surface.

Chip Board - a board that is made from paper stock with low density and thickness,
a paperboard used in applications not necessarily requiring strength or color.

Chop Saw / Cut-Off - a stationary tool designed for quick cutting of all types of
materials. Provides a straight, clean cut on materials from metal drywall studs to
angle iron. Quality models come equipped with a quick-release fence for fast angle
adjustment and an angle indicator at 15-degree increments for accurate cutting.
Most have 3.5 to 4 HP max motors with no-load speeds up to 3,800 RPM.

Circular Saw - a portable, heavy-duty cutting tool that works well on a variety
of projects, from framing a wood or metal building to rough metal fabrication work.
Ideal for cutting, cleaning and slotting of all types of metal and masonry. A circular
saw does not have a built-in cutting guide and requires a hand-held guide, so it is
generally used for rough cutting. Some models come with electric brakes and a quick
depth adjustment for a more accurate cut. Maximum HP is around 2.5 with no-load
speeds up to 5,000 RPM.

Climb Grinding - the term used to describe the process when the workpiece is
presented to the abrasive belt in the same direction as the belt.

Closed Coat - an abrasive material classification in which the backing is completely
covered with abrasive grain.

Cloth Disc - a coated abrasive with a cloth backing, designed for rough sanding
of primed and painted surfaces, blending, leveling, finishing, heavy stock removal,
and more.

Coarse - an abrasive grit measurement. For heavy removal of material.

Coated Abrasive - an abrasive product consisting of three basic materials: grain,
backing and bond.

Cone - a cone shaped abrasive roll, usually used in sanding hard to reach areas.

Contour Sanding Sponge - a Norton product of coated abrasive sponge that is
thin, flexible for sanding small diameters and contours such as ceramics, spindles,
turnings and railings, coated on one side.

Conveyorized Grinding - a flat grinding / finishing operation: a horizontal conveyor
mechanism provides automatic part delivery to vertical belt grinding heads.

Corner Drywall Sponge - a Norton product of coated abrasive sponge that is extra
firm dual side sanding capabilities to create near perfect corners, coated on 2 sides.

Crowning - a convex appearance, with the center higher than the edges

Crystolon® - is a Norton trademark for a Silicon Carbide sharpening stone, ideal
for fast cutting action.

Cupping - a concave appearance with the edges higher than the center.

Cup Wheel - a bonded abrasive product consisting of aluminum oxide, silicon
carbide or zirconia alumina with a bowl or cup shape. Designed for very heavy
stock removal or beveling applications.

Cut - Noun: one pass over an area of floor with sanding equipment

Cut-Off Blades - a bonded abrasive product designed for fast cutting metal,
autobody panels, sheet metal and more.

Cut Rate - amount of material removal by the abrasive per unit of time.

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D

Delaminating - a separation of the components of an abrasive backing.

Depressed Center Wheel - a thin wheel product designed for stock removal
of all types of metal and masonry. Mounts to an angle grinder.

Detail Sanding - the process of sanding small, difficult, and hard to reach
areas, profiles mouldings, and contour pieces.

Detail/Profile Sanders - a small hand tool used for detail sanding. Most work
at speeds around 5,000 OPM (orbits per minute).

Diamond Blade/Wheel - a diamond embedded product for professional use
where more life and better cut rate are required over an abrasive blade.

Diamond Stone - a diamond sharpening product designed to enhance an edge.
Dimensioning - the removal of stock from the workpiece to form a desired shape.

Disc Sander - classification of sanders in which a sanding disc rotates on an arbor.

Drill Mount - a term used to describe an abrasive product that can be
attached to a drill.

DrillSand™ - is a Norton tradename for Drill Mount products.

Drum Sander - a term used for a sander consisting of a drum or series of drums
mounted on a central spindle. Used primarily for stripping and sanding wood floors.

Dry Cutting Continuous Rim Blade / Wheel - a diamond wheel with a smooth
outer edge; designed for a smooth high quality cut on very hard materials.

Dry Cutting Segmented Rim Blade / Wheel - a diamond wheel with segments
of the blade strategically removed along the outer edge; designed for fast stock
removal and long life.

Dry to Sand - the stage of solidification of an applied finishing material that can
be sanded without ruing the sandpaper.

Drywall - a large sheet or panel usually made from gypsum board.

Drywall & Plaster Sanding - a product line designed for sanding drywall
compound and patching plaster prior to priming.

Dual Angle Sponge - a Norton product of coated abrasive sponge that is firm
with angle sides for sanding inside corners and crevices of hard to reach areas
on a variety of materials, coated 4 sides.

Dual Angle Paint & Drywall Sponge - a Norton product of coated abrasive
sponge that is extra firm with angle sides for sanding inside corners of drywall
compound, coated 4 sides.

Dulling - a condition of an abrasive which the grain has become dull and no
longer sands effectively.

Durite® - is a Norton trademark for Silicon Carbide products.

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E

Edge Sander - a term for a sander consisting of an oscillating abrasive belt
mounted on two pulleys with vertical axes. Used primarily for sanding flat
or shaped edges of panels Edger - a tool that uses various sized discs to
sand surfaces, usually found in the floor sanding industry.

Edg-R Disc® - is a Norton trademark for an abrasive product used on high-
speed edger machines to sand the perimeter.

Emery - a natural mineral with black appearance used as an abrasive grain.

End Joint - the intersection of two pieces of flooring joined together end to end.

Extra Coarse - an abrasive grit measurement. For extra heavy removal of material.


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F

Fiber Discs - a coated abrasive product designed for use on angle grinders: ideal
for paint stripping, light deburring, weld grinding, and heavy metal removal.

Filler - a substance that is used to patch or repair holes and irregularities in sanded
surfaces to decrease the porosity of the surface prior to coating.

Fine - an abrasive grit measurement. For sanding surfaces prior to finishing or priming.

Finishing - the term used to describe the process of producing the desired
surface or RMS.

Finishing Sander - a term for a sander that moves in very small orbits, creating
a very tight scratch pattern.

Flap Disc - an abrasive product of angled flaps and a phenolic resin backing plate
used on angle grinders: ideal for metal fabrication, blending wheels, deburring,
cleaning, stripping and finishing.

Flap Wheel Sanding - a term for a sander consisting of motor or pneumatic driven
arbor connected to a wheel composed of abrasive stars or small cut sheets.
Used in finishing and sanding of moldings.

Flexing - a process in which the coated abrasive bond is broken at fixed intervals
and angles.

Floor Pad - a non-woven product in a variety of materials to burnish, buff, clean
or polish floors.

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G

  Garnet - a natural mineral with a red / brown appearance used as an abrasive grain.

Grade - the "text" designation of grit size for a product. As grains increase in size,
numbers decrease in value. E.g. 220 Very Fine.

Grain - a substance usually crushed into granules and used for removing material.

Grinding Wheel / Blade - a bonded abrasive product consisting of aluminum oxide,
silicon carbide or zirconia alumina used cutting of steel, concrete, aluminum, and more.

Grit Size - the "numeric" term used to describe the number of opening per linear inch;
a measurement of abrasive grains. Low grit numbers are coarser and high grit numbers
are finer. E.g. 220 Very Fine.
 

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H

  Hand Block - a resilient rubber sanding tool that holds a piece of sandpaper while
hand sanding.

Handi-Grip Sponge - a Norton product of coated abrasive sponge with a built-in
handle and angled end for sanding into tight spots.

Handy Pack - is a Norton term used for a small package quantity of a product,
generally a one-job pack size.

Hardwood - a broad leafed tree; the term has no reference to the
density of the wood.

Heavy-Duty Backing - a Norton product of coated abrasive paper disc that
is edge tear resistant.

Hook & Loop - an attachment system for abrasive discs with a backing of small
loops that attaches itself to a back-up pad with small hooks. Allows for quick
and easy disc change.

Hook & Sand™ - is a Norton tradename for Hook & Loop.

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I

Idler - the roller on a belt or drum sander that tracks the abrasive
belt to the machine.

India® - is a Norton trademark for an Aluminum Oxide stone, ideal
for generating keen edges and quality finishes.
 

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J

JobPack™ - is a Norton tradename used for a mid-size package quantity
of product geared to professional usage requirements to complete the job.
 

Joist - one in a series of beams used to support a structure.

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K

Kiln Dried - the drying of a product, usually wood, in which artificial heat is used. 

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L

Laminated Wood - an assembly of boned layers of veneer or lumber with an adhesive.

Lap Slice - a joint in a coated abrasive belt in which there is an overlapping and
adhesion of the two belt ends.

Leading Edge - the part of the coated abrasive belt edge that makes the first contact
with the workpiece.

Loading - the condition of accumulation of saw dust and small particles
in the abrasive grain.

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M

Make Coat - refers to the first layer on the backing of a coated abrasive.

Mandrel - an attachment for mounting abrasive stars to a tool such as a drill.

Medium - an abrasive grit measurement. For moderate removal of material.

Metalite® - is a Norton trademark for a product of coated abrasive aluminum oxide.

MetalSand™ - is a Norton tradename for Metal Sanding.
 

Metal Sanding - a product line designed for the removal of rust, paint and scale from
metal surfaces. The natural emery abrasive is coated onto a flexible cloth backing for
increased durability.

MultiSand™ - is a Norton tradename for All Purpose sanding.

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N

No-Fil® - is a Norton trademark for a product that is designed to resist loading.

Norlok® Joint - is a Norton trademark for a coated abrasive belt joint designed
like a sine wave to increase strength across the joint.

Non-Woven - a synthetic woven material of fibers used for heavy duty cleaning
and polishing. Replaces steel wool. Won't rust, shred or splinter.

NorZon® - is a Norton trademark for high performance Zirconia Alumina products -
blue in color.

NorZon® Plus - is a Norton trademark for an advance version of a NorZon product.

NorZon® 3X - is a Norton trademark for a portable belt Zirconia Alumina product.

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O

Offhand Grinding - the method of abrading in which the operator holds the workpiece
in their hand and presents it to the abrasive (as opposed to the workpiece being held
in a fixture).

Open Coat - coated abrasive classification in which 40-70% of backing is covered with
abrasive grains.

Orbital Sander - a classification of sander that uses an orbital action to remove stock.

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P

P-Grade - a product classification measurement for abrasive products.

Paper Disc - a Norton product of coated abrasive with a paper backing. Available
in premium grade, heavy duty backing, water base zinc stearate and hook & loop
backing: see individual categories for more information.

Particle Board - a generic term for a material made from wood particles and a resin
or binder that is compressed into sheets or boards.

Peeling - condition in which the paint or finish is lifting from the
surface of the material.

Pole Sander - a tool used to sand seams in drywall; usually on a pole holding
a sheet of abrasive paper.

Portable Cut-off Saws - a cutting tool used for metal and masonry work.
These tools run at a higher RPM, nearly 4,000-RPM. Ideal for deburring, cleaning,
slotting and cutting, and some models include a pivoting fence for accurate
angle cutting. Portable models are perfect for working on-site, when the work
piece is too big to bring to a stationary tool, or where shop space is limited.

Picture Framing - the undesirable appearance of a darker area around the edge
of a wood floor that has not been blended well from the perimeter to the larger
interior area.

Plumber's Roll - an abrasive product in roll form typically used by plumbers
in hand strapping and preparing copper pipe and fittings prior to soldering.

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Q

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R

RMS - a term used to describe the measure of surface roughness (Root Mean Square);
the standard measurement for the average depth of surface scratch achieved in
smoothing and polishing. The higher the RMS the rougher the finish.

Raised Grain - a rough or fuzzy condition on the face of the flooring in which the
dense summerwood is raised above the softer springwood, but not torn or separated.

Random Orbital Sander - a small high-speed hand tool. Ideal for light stock removal
with operating speeds up to 12,000 RPM. Available in both electric and air-driven
models in two basic styles - pistol grip and palm sander - ideal for sanding all types
of flat surfaces and materials including wood, metal, plastic, fiberglass, drywall and
composites. Some models automatically collect dust while others can be connected
to shop vacs.
 
RapidStrip™ - is a Norton tradename for drill mounted abrasive products that strip
away paint or finish, available in non-woven and wire brush.

Roll Grinding - a type of outside grinding that supports the work piece between
centers while it is being rotated.

Rotary Sander - a classification of sander that utilizes a slow speed to drive discs.

Roughing - the term used to describe the process of removing or cutting away
unwanted stock from the workpiece in specific tolerances.

Rubbing Bricks - a bonded abrasive block ideal for removing mold and form marks,
cleaning castings and rubbing down concrete. 

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S

Sanding Discs - a coated abrasive product that is circular and mounts
to a disc sander.

Sanding Sponges - a coated abrasive product in which the abrasive is attached
to a sponge.

  Sandpaper - a common reference to a product where abrasive grain has been
coated to a backing.

SandWet™ -   is a Norton tradename for wet sanding.

Screenbak® - is a Norton trademark for a product of coated abrasive that visually
resembles a mesh or screen; used for removing old finishes and wax build up.

Scroll Sander - term for a sander consisting of a square-ended metal blade that
projects through a flat worktable.

Scuffing - light abrading for removal of raised fibers or dust.

Sealer Sanding Sponge - a Norton product of coated abrasive sponge that
is coated with silicon carbide abrasive for sanding primers, sealers, and between
coats on furniture and cabinets.

Shaping - the term used to describe the process of bringing the workpiece
to a predetermined size and / or tolerance.

Sharpening Stone - an abrasive sharpening product designed to enhance
an edge to a particular product.

Sheets - a term referring to square pieces of sandpaper.

Sheet Sanders - a tool that takes several standard sheets sizes. Designed for
light duty, low stock removal of sanding jobs. Ideal for sanding flat surfaces,
sheet sanders can be used with a very fine grit sheets for light sanding between
coats of stain or sealers or for heavy removal of wood coating or rust.
The common sizes of sheet sanders are 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.

Shelling - a condition in which the mineral has been stripped from the backing
of a coated abrasive material.

  Silicon Carbide - a synthetic mineral with a black appearance used
as an abrasive grain.

Size Coat - the second or top adhesive layer of a coated abrasive.

Skiving - the term used to describe the removal of abrasive from the backing.

Slashed Assembly - coated abrasive production designed for use with brush
backed sanding heads.

Small Area Sponge - a Norton product of coated abrasive sponge that is small,
flexible used for general purpose sanding of a variety of materials where flexibility
is required, coated all four sides.

Speed-Lok® - is a Norton trademark for a product that incorporates a twist
on locking device which, when use in conjunction with the proper back-up pad
eliminates the need for mounting.

Stain - an application of color or coloration to wood other than the natural color.

Stearate - lubricant used on No-Fil coated abrasives to reduce loading.

Stick & Sand® - is a Norton trademark for a product with an adhesive backing
to stick to a back up pad and then sand.
 

Stock Removal - the term used to describe the removal of unwanted material from
the workpiece.

Streaking - the appearance of long narrow areas on a workpiece surface.

Swirl Marks - the appearance of circular imperfections on a workpiece. 

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T

Tack Cloth - a traditional "tacky" cloth used to pick up sanding dust and loose dirt.
One time use.

3X - a high performance product line from Norton of sheets, sponges, discs
and belts that outperform conventional sanding products. Can be used on all
surfaces and coatings. Will not clog, tear or transfer color.

Trail Edge - the edge of an overlap belt that is last to make contact with the workpiece.

Type 27 - a classification of depressed center wheel that is flat on the bottom.

Type 28 - a classification of depressed center wheel that is angled on the bottom. 

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U

Unfinished - a product which must be sanded and have stain applied for desired result.

Unfinished Wood Sanding Pack - a Norton product pack of sandpapers for every
sanding step of an unfinished wood project.

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V

Very Fine - an abrasive grit measurement. For very light sanding.

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W

WallSand™ - is a Norton tradename for drywall & plaster sanding.

Waterstones - a sharpening product designed to enhance an edge
to a particular product.

Wet Sanding - a product line best used for sanding wet, oil or dry sanding
primer, sealer, varnish, alacquer, enamel and other top coats.

Wire Brush - a Norton product of drill mounted abrasive with an assembly
of small wires ideal for surface preparation.

WoodSand™ - is a Norton tradename for wood sanding.

Wood Sanding - a product line designed for sanding bare wood in preparation
of the surface for stain or finish. The natural garnet abrasive imparts a fine,
smooth finish on wood.

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X

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Y

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Z

Zirconia Alumina - a synthetic mineral with a controlled breakdown
that resharpens itself.
 

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